Water consumption

Reduction in water use (m3 of water used/t of finished product) achieved thanks to the implementation of a closed-loop water recycling system (2009-2019) that allows for reuse wherever possible.


Water has several uses in a paper mill: first and foremost, it enables the handling and distribution of the fibres that form the paper web. Depending on the type of final product required, different percentages of water are used in various types of mixture.

Water is also used in certain subsequent processes such as coating, which improves paper and cardboard’s surface appearance and print quality. The percentage of water in coating ranges from 60% in less diluted solutions to 95% in more diluted ones.
Finally, water is also used in the drying process in the form of steam after having been treated in a demineralisation plant.

Water has multiple uses in a paper mill: it is used to create paper pulp, coatings and as a heating fluid.
Of residual water in paper depending on product features

The impact of water management

Water management has to account both for environmental and economic impacts. The quality of wastewater, which is treated before being released into waterways, has to be as high as possible to avoid negative environmental outcomes. For this reason, it is crucial to carefully monitor the entire wastewater process.
Wastewater quality is assessed through continuous chemical and physical analyses. The principal safety parameters are carefully examined every day.
Between 2009 and 2019, the Favini paper mill achieved a 16% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) per annual production. Furthermore, the water’s nitrogen discharge (responsible for algae eutrophication), calculated as the ratio between kg of nitrogen and annual production in tonnes, has been cut by 57%.
Water management in a paper mill is a key aspect not just from an environmental perspective. The more water is used in the production system, the higher the costs for treating it in purification plants. Therefore, promoting reuse is vital.

Water management in a paper mill has to account for both environmental and economic impacts.
Litres of water saved in the last decade thanks to improvements in water management practices (2009-2019).


To reduce waste and improve efficiency across its facilities, Favini uses water from different sources for different uses. Well water is employed in manufacturing processes, while that from waterworks fulfils all personal uses (from canteens to sanitary facilities).
The paper mill has also implemented a closed-loop water system to allow for the recovery and reuse of cooling waters after appropriate treatment wherever possible. Furthermore, Favini has reduced its water use also thanks to the installation of several water meters as well as the care taken by specially trained employees. These actions enable significant well water savings.
Finally, all outgoing water from production processes is diverted to an efficient biological treatment plant. Here, the water is restored to optimal quality and can thus be released into waterways without damaging ecosystems.

The closed-loop purified water recovery system and biological treatment plant ensure process efficiency and reduced consumption.
The share of well water used in industrial processes. This type of water is of lower quality compared to that in the waterworks and its use impacts the community less.